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The Capacity to Be Exclusively as a Tension Buffer

 The Capacity being Alone like a Stress Barrier Essay

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The Log of Social Psychology

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The Capacity to Be Alone as a Stress Buffer

Reed Larson & Meery Shelter

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Section of Human and Community Development, School of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, USA Version of record initial published: 01 Jul 2010.

To refer to this article: Reed Larson & Meery Lee (1996): The Capacity to Be Only as a Pressure Buffer, The Journal of Social Mindset, 136: 1, 5-16 To link to this information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1996.9923024

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The Diary of Interpersonal Psychology. 1996. /36(1). 5-16

The Capacity to Be Alone as a Stress Buffer

REED LARSON MEERYLEE Division ofHuman and Community Development University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign

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ABSTRACT. The hypothesis that the ability to pleasantly spend and use time alone is actually a buffer against effects of pressure, comparable to social support, was examined. A 20-item instrument originated to evaluate the capacity to be by itself (Winnicott, 1958) and was then administered by cell phone survey to 500 U. S. adults. Findings differed for two proportions of the capacity to be alone. Reported comfort in being exclusively was identified to be linked to lower depressive disorder, fewer physical symptoms. and greater pleasure with existence. Reported capability to use period alone to manage stress had not been related to health and wellness. Neither dimension showed the expected conversation with anxiety, and people who have high pressure who reported high solo coping showed greater weeknesses on one sizing of well-being, suggesting this coping design may indicate maladjustment.

EXPERTS HAVE DESIRED to identify safety mechanisms which could buffer people from the negative effects of stress. This work has constantly indicated that social support is among the buffering components: People who have by least a single person in which they can confide appear to be fewer vulnerable to the effect of tension (Cohen & Wills, 1985). Not everyone, however , provides access to this kind of a confidant (Hansson, Jones, & Carpenter, 1984), nor are tries to seek support from others always successful (Jung, 1989). Furthermore, maintenance of a social media of potential confidants might have costs as well as rewards (Rook, 1984), and extented reliance upon others can lead to " caretaker burnout" (Cantor, 1983). Instead of relying on other folks, some individuals make an attempt to deal with anxiety through strategic seclusion from social contact-through spending time only in expression and self-soothing activities (Repetti, 1989; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1982). In the 18th 100 years, Rousseau (1778/1979) wrote, " The habit of heading off into me personally eventually made me immune to the ills that beset me" (p. 35). ScholAddress messages to Reed...

References: Antonucci, T. C., & His home country of israel, B. A. (1986). Veridicality of support: A comparison of principal and network members ' responses. Log of Asking and Specialized medical Psychology, fifty four, 432-437. Canoro, M. They would. (1983). Tension among caregivers. A study of experience in the us. The Gerontologist. 23, 597-604. Cohen, T., & Hoberman, H. Meters. (1983). Positive events and social supports as buffers of existence change pressure. Journal ofApplied Social Mindset, 13, 99-125. Cohen, S., Mermelstein, L., Kamarck, Big t., & Hoberman, H. M. (1985). Measuring the useful components of support. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds. ), Social support: Theory, research and applications (pp. 73-94). The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. Cohen, H., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Anxiety, social support, plus the buffering speculation. Psychological Program, 98, 310-357. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). The experience sampling method. Log of Anxious and Mental Disease, a hundred seventy five, 526-536. deVries, M. T., Delespaul, P., & Dijkman-Caes, C. We. M. (1987). Affect and anxiety in daily life. In G. Racagni & E. Smeraldi (Eds. ), Anxious despression symptoms assessment and treatment (pp. 21-32). Nyc: Raven Press. Dohrenwend, W. S., Dohrenwend, B. P., Dodson, M., & Shrout, P. Elizabeth. (1984). Symptoms, hassles, sociable supports, and life situations: Problem of confounded actions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology; 93, 222-230. Fiske, Meters. (1980). Changing hierarchies of commitment in adulthood. In N. Smelser & E. Erikson (Eds. ), Themes of work and love in adulthood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hansson, L. 0., Jones, W. L., & Carpenter, B. In. (1984). Relational competence and social support. In P. Razor (Ed. ), Review of persona and interpersonal psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 265-284). Beverly Hills, LOS ANGELES: Sage. Manley, C., & Larson, R. (1982). Bulimia: An research of moods and behavior. Psychosomatic Treatments, 44, 341-351. Jung, M. (1989). Support rejection and reappraisal simply by providers and recipients. Diary ofApplied Interpersonal Psychology, 19, 159-173.

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The Record of Sociable Psychology

Kessler, R. C; & Mcl. eod, M. D. (1984). Sex variations in vulnerability to undesirable your life events. American Sociological Assessment, 49, 620-631. Larson, 3rd there’s r. (1990). The solitary aspect of life: An examination of the time people spend exclusively from childhood to retirement years. Developmental Assessment, 10, 155-183. Larson, 3rd there’s r., & Asmussen, L. (1991). Symptom versus syndrome: Plotting the indications of voracidad in daily life. In M. deVries (Ed. ), The experience of psychopathology (pp. 167-179). Cambridge, NEW YORK: Cambridge Press. Larson, 3rd there’s r., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1978). Experiential correlates of time alone in age of puberty. Journal of Personality, 46, 677-693. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, Meters. (1980). The significance of time by itself in teenagers development. Diary of Current Adolescent Treatments, 2, 33-40. Larson, 3rd there’s r., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Graef, R. (1982). Time alone in daily experience: Solitude or revival? In T. A. Peplau & G. Perlman (Eds. ), Isolation: A sourcebook of current theory, study, and remedy (pp. 40--53). New York: Wiley-Interscience, Malik, H. (1981). Internal modernity: A comparative research of several African and American graduate student students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago. Mechanic, D. (1980). The experience and reporting of common physical complaints. Journal Health and Interpersonal Behavior; 21, 146-155. Pearlin, L. We., Menaghan, At the. G., Lieberman, M. A., & Mullan, J. To. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior; 22, 337-356. Radloff, M. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale intended for research inside the general population. Applied Mental Measurement, I, 385-401. Repetti, R. L. (1989). Associated with daily work load on subsequent behavior during marital connection: The functions of social withdrawal and spouse support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 651-659. Reynolds, D. (1980). The quiet remedies: Japanese paths to personal growth. Honolulu: The College or university Press of Hawaii.. Rook, K. H. (1984). The negative side of social conversation: Impact on emotional wellbeing. Diary of Character and Interpersonal Psychology, 46, 1097-1108. Rook, K. S. (1987). Support versus friendship: Effects in life anxiety, loneliness, and evaluations by simply others. Record ofPersonality and Social Mindset, 49, 1132-1147. Rousseau, J. J. (1979). Reveries ofthe solitary master (P. England, Trans. ). Harmondsworth. UK: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1778) Rubenstein, C, & Shaver, P. (1982). In search of intimacy. New York: Delacorte Press, Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, M. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of lifestyle changes: Progress the life activities survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932-946. Suedfeld, P. (1974). Social remoteness: A case intended for interdisciplinary research. The Canadian Psychologist, We, 1-15. Suedfeld, P. (1982). Aloneness like a healing experience. In T. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds. ), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory. research and practice (pp. 254-267). Nyc: Wiley-Interscience. Weissman, M. Meters., Sholomskas, G., Pottenger, M., Prusoff, B. A., & Lacke, B. Z. (1977). Assessing depressive symptoms in five psychiatric populations. A validation study. American Log (~f Epidemiology, 106, 203-214. Winnicott, D. W. (1958). The capacity being alone. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 416-420.

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Received March several, 1995

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